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   Post reply ( Re: Scratch Building CNJ #99 )
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Topic Summary
Posted by: TAB Posted on: Jan 13th, 2008, 12:12pm
Scratch Building CNJ Business Car #99

 
PART 1, INTRODUCTION

 
I became fascinated with open ended observation cars when I first caught a glimpse the CNJ's club car Monmouth. This led to my discovery of the CNJ's Blue Comet observation cars and to CNJ business cars #97 and 98. I had the opportunity to photograph the interiors of these latter two in the early 1960s. Then in 1987, I saw a photo of CNJ #99 on the rear cover of a calendar published by Walter Matuch of Communipaw Commemoratives. †I always liked things that were a little unusual and so the cars offset up windows caught my eye. Here was a piece just begging to be modeled. I remembered that either #97 or 98 also had such a window arrangement but I lacked any good photographs of the car's exterior. The calendar provided a good photograph of #99's right side but I needed one for the left. Morning Sun's book CNJ/LV Color Guide to Freight and Passenger Car Equipment supplied the photograph I needed. See Figures 1 and 2. Sincerest thanks to Robert Yanosey, the publisher of Morning Sun Books for permission to post those pictures here.
 

 

 
My intention in posting the information that follows is to present the process I followed in the construction of this car. It is meant to be not so much a series of steps but rather the description of a scratch building journey with the completed car as the destination. Hopefully those of you that visit here will find the information interesting and perhaps useful.
 
PART 2, PLANING

 
I've found that I enjoy planning a project almost as much as its execution and where better to start than with a plan.
 
I used the two photographs from the Morning Sun book as a starting point. I assumed the car to be about 85 feet long so using a scale rule, I drew a line on my paper that would represent the top edge of the side. I drew the line a scale 85 feet long. After measuring the height of the decal lettering, I drew a second line below and parallel to the first. The width of the space between the lines would represent the letter board. The height of the side was based on the height of an old Walthers passenger car kit and a third line was drawn to represent the cars side's lower edge.
 
Based on the 85 foot length, I determined the middle and drew a vertical center line. I photo copied the lettering from the decal and centered this on the plan.
 
Since the photographs I had were taken at an angle, determining the location and size of the windows proved to be a bit of a challenge. In both cases the lettering proved to be very helpful. Using the photograph of the right side of the car, I compared the width of the windows and spacing to the position of the letters in the word "Jersey Central Lines". See figure 3.

 

 
These dimensions provided a starting point and after using that old Walthers car side to estimate the position of the belt rail, I started laying out the large and small window rectangles and the spaces. See Figure 4.The same techniques were used to position the windows on the plan of the car's left side.
 

 
I think I came pretty close using this method. See Figure 5.
 

 
I had made numerous, unsuccessful attempts to find a floor plan of this car as the information would have helped to establish the proper spacing of the windows. Lacking this, I can live with what I have. In the event such a plan should surface in a timely way the dimensions I have can be modified.
 
At some point in the car's career, the windows were updated to the thermal pane variety with the curved corners. These appeared to be set behind the rectangular openings. It is this feature that provided the next modeling challenge.
 
I didn't feel like cutting multiple window inserts with curved corners so the project was put on hold for a while until a solution presented itself. Then one day, during a cleaning frenzy, I found the shells for some Rivarossi smooth side pullmans and there I found the window style I needed. See Figure 6.

 
 
 
Currently the plan calls for slicing and dicing the Rivarossi car sides and then reassembling them into a sub side with the proper window pattern of size, spacing and height. Then a second car side will be fashioned from styrene sheet. Rectangular window openings will be cut and rivet detail added. This will then be laminated over the sub side. This should provide the look I want to simulate. The diagram below shows how this should work.
 
At this point other materials will come from Bethlehem Car Works, Athearn, Precision Scale, Northern Eastern and perhaps Eastern Car works.
 
The next installment will deal with the construction of the sub side with the thermal pane windows.

 
PART 3, THE SUB SIDE

 
The subside will be made of window sections taken from the Rivarossi pullman cars. Some of these will be used as is but a number of them will have to be shortened. To see how this would work out I cut up a scan of the pullman side into window sections. Using the plan of the exterior side, I fastened these sections to a piece of paper and simulated the spacers that would be needed to join the sections together. The smaller, pared windows were fashioned from two full sized window sections that were cut down and rejoined. To illustrate this I left the seams visible. See Figure 7.
 

 
I used a section of the plan to simulate the exterior car side and cut out three of the window openings. This part will be made from styrene sheet. Strip styrene will form the belt rail and letter board. The rivets will be embossed. See Figure 8.
 

 
I placed the exterior side over the paste up of the subside windows. The results can be seen in Figure 9.
 

 
PART 4, SLICING and DICING

 
The materials I need to continue with this project have arrived so, after a deep breath, it's time to do some slicing and dicing. I bought myself a mini band saw. See figure 10.
 

 
I'll use this to cut the ends and sides off the car. The same could be done with a coping and razor saw. A small pointed saw blade made by Xacto also would come in handy. I decided to use the band saw as it will speed up the process and add a level of precision hard to achieve with hand tools.
 
The ends were removed first followed by the sides. The ends will be fed to the parts box while the sides will be further cut into sections on a mini table saw. See figures 11-14.
 
Cutting off the ends:

 

 
Cutting off the sides:
 

 
Cutting the window sections:
 

 
Subside window sections:
 

 
These window sections will be trimmed as needed and then assembled into the subside. The assembly of the window sections will be facilitated through the use of a jig and a window template made from a plan of the car side.
 
PART 5, THE JIG

 
Figure 15 below, shows my first step in constructing the jig. One of the photocopied plans is trimmed to size.
 

 
After the plan was trimmed, inorder to provide some protection from the glue,I decided to cover the pieces with clear contact paper.The liquid styrene cement I was using seemed to have little effect on this surface. See figure16.
 

 
With the contact paper applied and each side trimmed to size, the under side of the pieces were coated with spray adhesive and then, as in figure 17, they were pressed down onto a piece of corrugated card board.
 

 
Figure 18 shows how I used 3/16 square balsa wood to 'frame' 3 sides of the plan sections. the opposite end was left open.
 

 
PART 6, ASSEMBLING THE SUB SIDE

 
With the jig complete, the next series of steps involve assembling the sub side sections and spacer pieces. Figure 19 shows how the jig was used to align the windows of the car side with the windows on the plan. When satisfied, I marked the side where it would be cut.
 

 
Figure 20 shows trimming the car side to the mark
 

 
Figure 21 shows this first section after it was pressed into place in the jig.
 

 
This process was repeated for the first window section on the other car side. Figure 22 shows this piece pressed into place.
 

 
Figure 23 shows how the distance between the window section and end of the car was measured for a spacer piece. The digital caliper was purchased at a Home Depo and wasn't at all expensive. It's a very worthwhile tool to have and will go a long way in making your scratch building attempts more precise.
 

 
Using the caliper, the thickness of the car side was measured at .08 inch. Apparently Evergreen Styrene doesn't produce a sheet of this thickness so, using spray adhesive, I laminated together a .03 and a .05 sheet. A section of this was trimmed to the height of the car side. Based on the caliper measurement a portion of this was cut to use as a spacer piece. See figure 24.
 

 
Figure 25 shows the spacer being test fit into the jig. Notice that the sections of car side have been sanded. This was necessary to remove a shallow raised trim section so that the subsequent, laminated outer surface will lay smoothly over the subside. However I've decided not to do any more sanding till the entire subside is finished as I think I'll get a more uniform result.
 

 
Once I was satisfied with the fit, the spacer and window section were removed and some liquid styrene cement was brushed on the two edges to be joined. When this coating became a little tacky a second application of glue was brushed on. The two pieces were put into the jig and pushed together. See figure 26.

 

 
I cut a number of the smaller window sections and trimmed them to size. Figure 27 shows the first one in place with the remaining three ready to go.
 

 
Figure 28 shows how I continued with the windows that were offset up by trimming the window sections shorter and filling in the gap at he bottom with spacer strips.
 

 
I'll continue with this process till both sides are done.
 
PART 7, THE GALLEY DOOR

 
I decided to use the door from an Athearn heavyweight dining car. After cutting the end off the car, the door was removed with the help of the mini table saw. See figure 29.
 

 
 
Figure 30 shows how the door was trimmed to rough size, just outside the rivet strips and then in figure 31 sanded back to the finished size. Figure 32 shows the results.
 

 

 

 
Next both the front and rear surfaces of the door were sanded to make its thickness match that of the material already in place. This removed the rivet and handrail detail but this will be added to the thin side overlay later.
 
The door is still too large so it needs to be shortened. This was accomplished by using the table saw to cut the door in half along the bottom of the raised cross piece and just under the door handle. The top of the lower portion was then trimmed back so that when the two pieces are joined together a correct height door results. See figure 33.
 

 
I coated the two edges to be joined with a generous amount of liquid plastic cement and waited a bit allowing the edges to become soft and tacky. Then the two halves were pressed together forcing some of the softened plastic to ooze onto the surface forming a thin bead and filling the seam. See figure 34.
 

 
After this had a time to dry, Iíll use some very fine grit, of the type used to polish rocks, to smooth the doorís surface. Iíll wet the grit with water and work it around with a pencil eraser till the seam disappears.
 
Part 8, Finishing the Sub Side

 
The fitting of the final sections into the jig is shown in Figure 35. I decided to use a pair of small, unmodernized windows for the galley. I didnít have a good photo of the galley end and I thought these windows were more appropriate for this area.
 

 
I decided not to use that soft sanding block mentioned earlier. I thought that the surface might deform under pressure and produce poor results or ruin the work. I made a sanding block from wood that fit between the legs of the jig. Fine sand paper was glued to one side and very fine to the other. In figure 36, the sides are sanded to remove surface irregularities. Care is necessary so the beading around the windows is not removed.
 

 
Figure 37 shows sanding the irregularities out of the door with moistened, very fine rock tumbler grit and a pencil eraser.
 

 
Next any necessary filler pieces were added and sanded smooth. See figure 38.
 

 
Figure 39 shows the finished sides while still in the jig. The sides were removed by sliding a wide, flat piece of brass between the side and the plan, gently prying up along the way. See figure 40. The contact paper served its purpose well and as you can see in figure 41, survived in good shape. If however I do this again, Iíll wipe a very little silicone lubricant onto the contact paper before gluing in the sub side sections.
 

 

 

 
With the sides removed, where necessary, I cleaned the grove that creates beading with a dental pick. See figure 42. Except for some clean up sanding, the sub sides are complete. The next part will cover the construction of the exterior sides.
 

 
 
Part 9, The Exterior Sides

 
For the exterior sides Iíll use a piece of .010Ē thick styrene but rather than lay out the complete side and then cut the window openings, as I had planned, †I'm going to piece individual sections of the exterior sheeting around the window openings. I decided to make this change because the more I thought about the process of cutting openings, this new approach seemed much simpler. In addition I've decided to use the new rivet decal material so the exterior side does not have to be in one piece as it would need to be if the rivets were to be embossed.
 
Figure 43 below shows some of these small sections ready to be glued into place. They were cut using the mini table saw to be sure that they were square. Pieces were cut oversize where necessary so that the could extend past the edges of the sub side. These will be trimmed off later.
 

 
The areas above and below the windows were covered over first. See figure 44. Testors liquid plastic cement was used for it's slow setting qualities which allowed the pieces to be positioned.
 
AUTHORS NOTE: When I started working on the second side it dawned on me that it would probably be better to to apply the styrene exterior panels in a vertical pattern. In this way the rivet decals will align themselves with the seams. Another benefit is that filling with body putty is a lot less necessary. However, as can be seen later on, both methods produced very acceptable results. See figure 44.1
 

 

 
Figure 45 shows how the styrene panels overlap the sub side. These will be trimmed flush when the laminating process is complete.
 

 
Once the space above and below the windows was covered the sections between the windows was filled in See figure 46.
 

 
Even with the most careful fitting of these pieces, irregularities will result. As shown in figure 47, the old standby, Squadron Green Body Putty, was used to minimize these imperfections.
 

 
When dry, the filler was sanded smooth with a small sanding block. See figure 48. The two tone blue implement is a 'nail care' device from a local beauty supply shop. These sanders come in very handy as the come in a variety of fine grits and are easy to cut into smaller sizes.
 

 
Once the sides were sanded smooth the letter board and belt rail were added with styrene strips of suitable size. See figure 49.
 

 
The last of the plastic trim consisted of framing the galley door, adding the sill and applying gusset strips. Figures 50 and 51 show the results.
 

 

 
 
PART 10, Completing the Side

 
The Handrails
 
Once the side is cleaned up, its time to add the handrails. Although there is a handrail at each end of the car, I chose to instal these later after the final length of the car was established. For now I'll just attend to the handrails at the galley door. I used commercial, pre-formed wire handrails, however I modified them to suit my installation method. Years ago, having been frustrated by the usual difficulties when installing handrails and grab irons, I decided that only one mounting hole was necessary if one leg of the wire was shortened to a flush length. The hole is drilled a size larger than the wire and the longer leg of the handrail is bent down slightly. The larger hole allows room for the glue while the bent leg provides a spring action to hold the piece in place. See figure 52. Before gluing, the handrail can be tweeked by adjusting the bend and/or trimming the cut leg.
 

 
With the long leg of the handrail through the hole, adjust its position and then, from the rear, place a drop of ACC on the wire at a spot near the side and allow it to flow down the wire into the hole.
 
Priming
 
In addition to providing a uniform base for the final paint color, priming serves the additional function of showing up any flaws that would detract from the model's final appearance. This initial primer coat need only be very thin to serve this purpose. For this piece I used Floquil, solvent based, Grey Primer. See figures 53 and 54. I'll take a close look at the results, do any clean up and prime again. When all looks OK, it's on to the rivets.
 

 

 
Rivet Decals
 
The development of these rivet decal products has really simplified what used to be a tedious scratch building process. The decals are produced by depositing minute dots of black epoxy on decal paper. Rivet decal sheets are available fro Archer Fine Transfers and Micro-Mark. When I started writing this piece this material was not available and I planed on embossing the rivets with the tools produced by Northwest Short Lines. This is why my initial plans called for cutting the exterior sides from a single sheet of styrene.
 
The start of the rivet decaling process is shown in figure 55. The vertical strips are fairly easy to apply and are generally positioned to the left ad right of each window edge. A check of the photographs shows their positioning. The horizontal strips require a little more attention. The rivet strip that is positioned at the lower edge of the letter board was cut as close to the rivets along one edge and with as much decal film as possible along the other. This provides a lot of decal film for positioning and a line of rivets that easily finds the lower edge of the letter board.
 

 
The strip that will be applied to the belt rail is cut as close to the rivet line as possible and practical along both edges. This allows the decal film to virtually self align in the area below the the belt rail's raised rib.
 
To assist in the decaling process, Micro Scale setting solutions were used. The solution from the blue bottle, which is the weaker of the two, is applied to the area where the decal will be applied. This serves mainly as a wetting agent, only slightly softens the decal film and allows plenty of time for positioning. In fact, I've found that if working on a perfectly smooth surface no other setting solution is necessary.
 
However, since the primer has a rougher surface than the finish color, I applied a coat of the stronger setting solution, from the red bottle. This was done when the initial cote was completely dry. Since this stronger solution greatly softens the decal film it is important not to touch the decals till this second application is dry.
 
Although exadurated by the lighting, there is some silvering of the decal. This is caused by microscopic pockets of air beneath the film. When dry, gently pricking the film surface with a sharp X-Acto blade and reapplying the stronger solution generally eliminates this condition. I'll do this after all the rivets have been applied as the decal is not adhered well to the surface where silvering occurs.
 
Figure 56 below shows the completion of the rivet decaling. The process was tedious but the results were well worth the effort and a lot more consistent than pressing the rivets in one by one.
 

 
Part 10, The Ends and Underbody

 
The photo below shows a view of the galley end of this car with the detailing required for the model. Somewhat unique when compared to most CNJ passenger equipment is the Pullman styling that features that rectangular extension above the door opening.
 

 
To simulate this design feature on the model, I used the floor and ends produced by Branchline for their Pullman car kits as shown in figure 58.
 

 
The choice of this material provided two advantages. The end shown at A has the Pullman design feature and the flanges at B provide a good surface to which the sides will be attached.
 
As illustrated in figure 59, the floor was modified by adding a section of Athearn observation floor (A1) and adjusting the position of the truck bolster (B3) from its original location at C. Sections of the floor 2 and 3 were use as spacers to move the bolster rearward and adjust the car length. The opposite,cast on car end, was also removed from its location here.
 

 
To strengthen the joints, styrene gussets were applied to the opposite side. See figure 60.
 

 
Using the photographs and with the help of other reference material available, the underbody was detailed with an assortment of commercial and scratch built parts. The intent was to produce something that while not exactly identical to the prototype, still maintained a credible appearance.
 
Grateful appreciation is given to Rod Bushway who gave his permission for use the photo, directly below, showing #99 as the DL&W's BELFORD. The under body, painted in light grey, shows off the equipment very well.

 

 
Figures 61-64 show the results.
 

 

 

 

 
The next phase in the construction of the ends and underbody will be to add some details to the galley end. A piece of masking tape was marked for the location of the holes that will be drilled to accept the grab iron ladder. This was applied to the end and holes drilled at the locations marked. As before, only one set of holes is drilled. See figure 65.
 

 
Figure 66 shows the end with grab irons, break wheel and diaphragm attached. The same technique was used for the grab irons here as was used for the handrail by the galley door. I've always liked the Walthers paper diaphragms so I used them here. I modify them slightly by using a pair of scissors to trim, by half, the two paper flaps on the front and rear of the bellows. This makes for a much cleaner appearance. Walthers Goo is used to attach the buffer plate to the bellows and then the completed assembly to the end. The remaining details will be added after the sides are attached.
 

 
For the observation end I decided to use the end from an Athearn observation car. This piece proved to be a bit too wide and needed to be narrowed by 1/8". I wanted to save the left and right window edges and also keep everything symmetrical. To accomplish this with some precision, I passed the end through the mini table saw. The blade is 1/32" thick so two, blade thick, slices down through each of the windows narrowed the part by just the right amount. These were then glued back together to produce an end of the proper width. See figures 67 and 68.
 

 

 
Once dry and cleaned up, the piece was attached to the floor along with with a pair of Cal-Scale steps. See figure 69.
 

 
With the roof being the only major structural work remaining, it's time to test fit the sides. Some double sided tape was applied to the flange on the floor and then the sides were pressed into place. At this point some Northeastern 1/4 round was added to the observation end of the sides. I had forgotten to apply these earlier. Figures 70-73 show the results.
 

 

 

 

 
 
Part 11, The Roof

 
Figure 74 shows how I modified the galley end of a section of Branchline coach roof to fit the Pullman style ends. A small sanding block cut to the proper width was used to fashion the notch.
 

 
The observation end required some lengthening. To achieve this I removed the rounded end from the section of roof that had just been notched. Then a suitably sized section of roof was removed from a piece of roof material. The results are shown in figure 75a.
 
To join these two pieces together I'll coat the cut surfaces with several applications of liquid plastic cement. This allows these surfaces to become very gooey. The pieces are then pressed together and that gooey plastic is allowed to squeeze itself through the seam forming a bead of softened plastic on what will become the finished surface. When dry, this bead of plastic has filled in any irregularities between the joined surfaces. Some light sanding produces a virtually invisible seam.
 
This end also requires filling in the arched contour of the underside. An appropriately sized and shaped piece of 3/64" thick styrene sheet was cut and glued into place. See figure 75b.

 

 
Figures 76 and 77 show the details added to the left and right sides of the roof's galley end. These consisted of various vents, hatches, electrical conduits and grab irons as could be best determined from the photographs along with a healthy dose of modeling license.
 

 

 
Of note here are two of the scratch built parts. The first of these are the box fans. I thought I had some commercial versions of this part but couldn't find them. Figure 78 shows how these were constructed.
 

 
First, a Dremil 1/8" cutting bit was used to form a circular indentation in a .10x.16 styrene strip. Then, the tip of a 1/8" drill was used to emboss a "fan shaped" impression in the bottom of the indentation. The results are shown in the inset. Also in the inset can be see electrical conduits and junction boxes that were modeled with "square" bras tubing a wire. Seen also is a vent of sorts or perhaps and antenna which is somewhat visible in the prototype photos.
 
Figure 79 shows a second scratch built part, a galley roof vent, which was fashioned from a flattened piece of aluminum tubing.
 

 
The observation end of the roof is a lot plainer as shown in figures 80 and 81. Of note here, detail wise, is the roof antenna which was made from turned brass handrail standoffs and wire and the drip strip. In addition, the effectiveness of the technique used to join the roof sections can be observed where the arrows show the approximate location of the seam.
 

 

 
For trucks I chose Train Station Products #424, 6 Wheel Streamline Trucks along with their #437 Passenger Car Brake Cylinders & Slack Adjusters (arrows A and B) in figure 82. Bachman 36" wheel sets finish off these assemblies.
 

 
Part 12, Painting

 
Sometimes I think it's a shame to paint one of these models because it hides all the different materials used in construction. But then again if the model wasn't painted it would never be finished so I loaded up the air brush with primer grey and went at it. The results can be seen in the composite of figures 83-86 below.
 

 
After checking the model for flaws the finish color was applied. I used ScaleCoat II Pullman Green for the ends, sides and roof. Floquil's, Polly Scale, Oily Black was used for the under body and trucks. See figures 87 and 88.
 

 

 
Part 13, Final Construction

 
I let the paint dry for a full day and then began the assembly by applying some Walthers 'GOO' to the flange on the floor and to the lower edge of the sides interior. See figure 89. The glue was allowed to dry for a few minutes and then these parts were pressed together. Some Zap ACC was applied to the interior corners to secure these joints.
 

 
Figure 90 shows the section of 1/2" wood dowel that will be used to attach the roof to the car body. The length was cut about 1/32" shorter than necessary so when the mounting screw is tightened down the roof is drawn tightly to the car sides. The cone shaped depression, cut with a Dremmel bit allows the screw to locate it self without too much difficulty. It was fastened to the underside of the roof with Walthers 'GOO' and when that had dried for several hours, son Zap ACC was run into the seam. Many times these plastic roofs show a tendency to bow. If necessary. I'll add two more of these posts at each end of the roof.
 

 
I did a trial assembly of the components that I had so far including some window glazing with shades taped into place. I decided that some view blocks were necessary as well as some things to look at through the windows. You can see the results below in figure 91.
 

 
The floor and wall sections were built from styrene sheet and painted an off white color. The seats are milled wood products that came from old interior kits. I like using this material as its easy to trim into seating of various lengths. They can also be easily mitered when a seat is needed to fill an inside corner. In addition to the seats a table and server complete the dining room while some tables were included in the observation lounge. The empty sections are opposite frosted windows and were left empty. That circular opening in the floor accommodates the roof mounting post. I yielded to my sickness with the oriental rugs but the one in the dining area actually served a purpose. The seats and table were first glued to the rug and then the whole assembly was glued to the floor as one piece. This helped to make the assembly much neater. The rugs themselves were copied from the internet and then modified with Photoshop.

 
Figure 92 below shows the three major sub assemblies.
 

 
Figure 93 shows the materials I used to letter and number the car. The techniques I used were explained in the section describing the application of the rivet decals. These however are going onto a glossy surface so the possibility of frosting due to trapped air is greatly reduced. There will be the inevitable, tiny air bubble here and there. A gentle prick with the Xacto blade and more setting solution will resolve these issues.
 

 
And now a time out for some shameless self promotion. I did the art work for the decals and had them produced for me by Micro Scale Industries. I have these and a number of others available through my eBay store which you can access through my web page: www.tomsmodeltrains.net.  
 
Figure 94 shows the results of the dacaling. There is still a lot of reflection from the glossy surface which somewhat detracts from the appearance. This will be resolved prior to installation of the windows with a dulling overspray which will remove the reflections and make the decal film disappear.

 

 
The strips of window glazing and window shades are incorporated into one piece by air brushing the shade color onto strips of clear plastic. First a strip of 1" masking tape is applied to the clear plastic material leaving about 3/8" of glazing material above and below the tape. Be certain to firmly press down the tape edger to prevent the paint from creeping below the tape. This is followed by the application of the paint color. Although the photographs show a shade color which seems to be very similar to the color of the car, I chose to use a lighter color. Not wanting to go too far afield I simply added some grey paint to the Pullman green I used for the car. Figure 95 illustrates this step.
 

 
95A shows the masking tape applied to the clear plastic sheet. After the paint dries and the tape is removed, the material is cut into two pieces. There is enough shade and clear area so that through trimming, various shade lengths can be simulated. 95B shows the color from the rear (inside) and 95C shows how the color will look from the outside.
 
Once the window strips were done I airbrushed the sides and roof with some light coats of Testors Dull Coat. This protects the finish and eliminates the the shine of the decal film.  
 
Sections of window glazing were cut from the strip and trimmed to allow room for the glue and height adjustment of the shade area. Using a wood coffee stirrer, I placed tiny dabs of Walthers Goo to the left and right of the window opening, allowed this to dry for a bit and then pressed the window glazing into place. I like using Goo for this as it allows for positioning the glazing after it is in place. A sample of the results is shown in figure 96.

 

 
The prism windows were done on my computer using a graphics program and printed out on transparency film. The rear of these sections were given a light spray of off white to simulate the frosting. The use of the computer allows for various possibilities including the addition of lettering or numbering if needed.
 
Next I'll add the remaining end details shown below in figure 97
 

 
Typical parts shown include the Kadee couplers, air signal and steam connections, coupler levers, safety chain and hooks. The wire eve bolts will be used to attach the coupler cut levers. The thin pieces of copper wire (from an electrical chord) will be fed †through the end link of the chain. The two legs of wire are then twisted together and glued into a hole drilled in the underside of the car's end wall.
 
Figure 98 below shows the detail parts added to the galley end.
 

 
Next I'll do the same to the observation end and then finish off these details by brush painting with the same oily black that was used on the underbody and some weathering with rusty browns. The results are shown in figure 99.
 

 
Most appropriately all that's left to do on this project are the markers. See figure 100
 

 
I used, electric style, white metal markers painted with Badger Insignia Yellow along with MV Products red and amber lenses. Using a tooth pick, I'll place a very small amount of Microscale Krystal Clear into the dimples on the marker. Then with the moistened end of the paint brush, pick up a lens and set it into the dimple. The thick Crystal Clear grabs the lens and holds it in place so it can be properly positioned and seated. Any minimal excess is invisible when dry. As per the CNJ's practice, the lenses are red rear and forward and amber to the sides.
 
Part 14 Completing the Model

 
The only thing remaining is to hang the markers. See figure 101. I trimmed the parts from the sprew and drilled a hole for the mounting wire into the rear of the marker. ACC was used to attach the marker to the wire. Using a drill sightly smaller than the wire, a mounting hole was drilled into the quarter round and, as a fitting end to the project, the marker was press fit into the hole.
 

 
Well....that's it, #99 is done! I'll wrap up this chronicle of its construction with a series of 'builders photos'.
 

 

 
Right now I only have the photos above.....More soon. In the meantime, I hope you have enjoyed following along as I constructed this model and perhaps you've picked up some techniques that would be helpful in your own modeling.....Tom
 
 

 
 
Posted by: rio_rules Posted on: May 18th, 2012, 6:37pm
Fantastic model!!!    I like you technique... Has given me some good ideas.   Jim
Posted by: TAB Posted on: May 18th, 2012, 7:04pm
Hello Jim...thanks...I'm glad you enjoyed the construction log and welcome to Railfan.net Forums. Hopefully you good ideas will produce tangible results and naturally, your always invited to share your work here...now get busy and have fun with your trains....Tom
Posted by: slimrails Posted on: Jun 11th, 2012, 6:50am
Another masterpiece, Tom! Thanks for showing us your building technique.
 
Russ